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April 2013 Vol. 20. No. 5 Focus on Getting to Graduation

En español

Enfoque de Olney: Disciplina estricta, atención personal

Bajo nueva administración, una escuela superior enfrenta el problema del abandono escolar latino. Bajo nueva administración, una escuela superior enfrenta el problema del abandono escolar latino.

By por Connie Langland on Mar 26, 2013 11:31 AM
Photo: Harvey Finkle
Olney tiene un extenso personal de seguridad que se ve dentro y fuera de la escuela.

Muchos sándwiches en una bandeja, un surtido de vegetales, pizza, refrescos, pastel – todo para nueve jóvenes, la mayoría con apellidos latinos y casi todos varones: el centro de atención un día reciente en la Escuela Superior Chárter Olney.

¿Cuál era la celebración? Que estaban ahí.

“Hemos comenzado a ver que algunos de los jóvenes con ausencia crónica están viniendo a la escuela regularmente. Y de la misma manera que los regañamos cuando no vienen, queremos mostrarles lo mucho que nos agrada que estén aquí”, dijo el principal José Lebrón.

Y una rebanada de pizza es sólo el comienzo.

La Olney es operada por la división de administración de escuelas chárter de la organización sin fines de lucro ASPIRA bajo el programa del Distrito para mejoras a las escuelas de Renacimiento. El objetivo principal es mejorar el logro académico comenzando con mantener a todos los estudiantes (muchos de ellos latinos) encaminados a graduarse.

La tarea es inmensa: De acuerdo con cifras del Distrito Escolar, en la ciudad, sólo 49% de los varones latinos se graduaron a tiempo en el 2012; las niñas latinas lo hicieron un poco mejor, 60% lo lograron. Considerando lo positivo, eso representa un aumento de 10% sobre la incidencia de graduación en el 2007.

“Yo estoy tratando de mejorar”, dijo el estudiante Steven Ellis-Herrara, “porque quiero obtener mi diploma y progresar”. 

Hace dos años había dos escuelas Olney en el mismo edificio: la East y la West, separadas solamente por puertas cerradas.  Cundía el desorden, y académicamente el desempeño era pobre. 

Una nueva dirección

Después del cambio de administración en el verano de 2011, ASPIRA abrió las puertas, remodeló el edificio, contrató su propio personal docente y estableció una nueva dirección: 

La seguridad es la máxima prioridad y es respaldada por 32 oficiales de seguridad. 

Los estudiantes indisciplinados se asignan a la Success Academy, un programa escolar dentro de la misma escuela que combina disciplina estricta con instrucción. 

Los estudiantes que excedan la edad escolar y todavía no tengan suficientes créditos se enviarán a la Excel Academy para obtener los créditos necesarios y graduarse lo más pronto posible.

Los maestros y el personal de apoyo (que incluyen dos funcionarios de asistencia) les ofrecen a los estudiantes una extensa variedad de oportunidades e intervenciones.

La meta es fomentar el entusiasmo, la asistencia y el desempeño mientras a la vez se reduce la violencia, las ausencias crónicas y el abandono escolar. 

El año pasado, el porcentaje de graduación a tiempo de la escuela se mantuvo en un 50%, según el Distrito. La Olney ahora tiene una matrícula de 1,660 estudiantes: 55% latinos, 39% afroamericanos  y 4% asiáticos. Sin embargo, el tamaño de las clases graduandas ha estado bajando; la clase senior tuvo poco más de 200 estudiantes (cuya mitad eran latinos). 

Otras escuelas también tienen iniciativas para aumentar el porcentaje de latinos graduados. La organización Congreso opera un programa llamado Éxito en la Escuela Superior Thomas Edison. Este programa cuenta con actividades después de la escuela que incluyen ayuda con las tareas para estudiantes de 9no y 10mo grado en riesgo de abandonar la escuela, y tiene personas que se dedican a ofrecerles apoyo a estudiantes individuales. 

En la Olney, donde la llegada de
ASPIRA ocasionó un gran flujo de latinos, el programa busca satisfacer las necesidades de todos los estudiantes, dijo Lebrón, principal de experiencia del Distrito cuya última labor fue en la escuela Edison. 

Para un visitante, la Olney parece estar funcionando bien. Los estudiantes se comportan bien, hay oficiales de seguridad patrullando cada pasillo y muchos estudiantes se quedan en la escuela por las tardes para hacer deporte y participar en clubs. No obstante, la calle siempre se mete.

Un lunes de marzo, Lebrón recibió malas noticias del fin de semana: Un varón había sido abaleado cinco veces, otro había sido testigo de un homicidio, y dos más le habían dado una golpiza a un maestro en una escuela elemental cercana.

“La fuerza negativa que ha existido en la comunidad por muchos años es fuerte todavía. Ese es el reto”, dijo Lebrón. “Les estamos diciendo a los estudiantes que hay una manera mejor y diferente”.

Los indicadores de exámenes, asistencia y suspensión demuestran progreso en comparación con la antigua combinación East/West pero también señalan que hace falta más. El año pasado sólo 3 de cada 10 estudiantes cumplieron las metas estatales de matemáticas y lectura para estudiantes de 11mo grado. La asistencia diaria es de un 83%. Para mediados de marzo había 433 suspensiones, más que las del año pasado pero muchísimas menos que las de años anteriores. Este año se han expulsado nueve estudiantes. La política de cero tolerancia de la Olney resulta en más suspensiones, dijo Lebrón.

Disciplina estricta

Si la Olney está relativamente libre de problemas, gran parte del crédito se debe al programa que tiene en el sótano: la Success Academy. Este programa es operado por Success Schools, un proveedor de educación alternativa que opera programas similares al que tiene ASPIRA en la Escuela Chárter John B. Stetson, la Escuela Superior Mastery Gratz (en un plantel externo), en la escuela K-8 Young Scholars Frederick Douglass y en otros lugares.

En la mayoría de las escuelas del Distrito, los estudiantes con problemas crónicos de disciplina son repetidamente suspendidos y a veces expulsados. En Olney, si la mala conducta persiste el estudiante es asignado al programa Success. El año pasado, 163 estudiantes en los grados 9 al 12 recibieron instrucción y supervisión estricta en el programa. Todos los 22 seniors se graduaron, dijo el director Michael Esposito. Nadie fue expulsado, y “nadie bajo nuestra supervisión abandonó la escuela”. 

Este año ha habido una expulsión y una suspensión por incidentes ocurridos fuera de la escuela; la asistencia actual del programa es de un 82%, tiene 117 estudiantes en los grados 9, 10 y 11 “y seguimos añadiendo”, dijo Esposito. La buena noticia: 31 estudiantes mejoraron su conducta el primer semestre y fueron transferidos nuevamente en el programa regular. 

Otros estudiantes no se quieren ir.

Joel Sánchez se describe a sí mismo como un “estudiante problema” en los últimos años, que andaba entre “gente negativa”. El pasado otoño, mientras estaba en 9no grado, duró dos meses en la escuela Edison con malas notas y mala conducta, y según dijo, estaba a punto de abandonar la escuela.

En la Success Academy, se ha ganado privilegios – los que él llama “estatus”.

“Este programa me ha mantenido encaminado. Y no hay estudiantes corriendo por los pasillos, saliéndose de clase, ni tragedias”, dijo Sánchez. “Yo sólo quiero decirle a mi familia: ‘miren lo mucho que he logrado’”.

Sánchez, Alexander Vázquez y Gian Carlos, todos de 15 años y en 9no grado, junto con Raymond Morales de 16 y estudiante de 10mo grado, ofrecieron razones por las que algunos de sus compañeros abandonan la escuela. 

“Piensan en las muchachas, en ser cool. Pero no pueden conseguir trabajo, todavía no tienen 16 años, y no pasaron la escuela”, dijo Sánchez.

“Otra cosa son las drogas”, dijo Vázquez. “Se salen de la escuela sólo para ir a trabajar en la calle, en la esquina”.

Carlos dijo que el personal de Success le ha enseñado “cómo hablar con la gente, cómo evitar problemas y no contestar… también cómo tratar a tu familia, a tu mamá”.

Morales dijo: “Yo era bien irrespetuoso. Me encantaba pelear y meterme en muchos problemas”. Su meta es ir a la universidad a estudiar programación de computadoras. “Para conseguir trabajo necesito el diploma de escuela superior y después ir a la universidad”.

La primera visita a la Success puede ser inquietante. La escuela se ve muy bien, recién pintada y con carteles de inspiración. Pero a los estudiantes se les requiere caminar en silencio con las manos puestas en la espalda – un cuadro que puede parecer alarmante. 

Para los padres preocupados por la multitud de reglas y la separación de sus compañeros, Esposito asegura que no hay de qué preocuparse. “Los padres han mostrado escepticismo, pero les digo que no es necesariamente algo permanente”.

El programa funciona, dijo, porque los estudiantes “responden a la estructura y disciplina. Para algunos de estos estudiantes, lo que dejan en la mañana y a lo que regresan en la noche no les da ningún indicio de cuál va a ser el futuro. Aquí tienen un sentido de dirección.

“¿Se arregla cada niño que viene aquí? Te estaría mintiendo”, dijo Esposito. “Pero nuestro récord de éxito es bueno”.

Contra la frustración

La Excel Academy ofrece un programa académico para otro grupo desafiante: jóvenes de 16 a 21 años en riesgo de abandonar la escuela por razones financieras o por encarcelación, embarazo u otras situaciones familiares. La Excel es operada por Camelot Schools, que está también a cargo de otros dos programas acelerados del Distrito. 

Sadiqa Lucas, directora ejecutiva, dijo que algunos de sus estudiantes latinos habían dejado la escuela por frustración. “Los estudiantes latinos son muy orgullosos”, dijo Lucas. “No quieren ir a una escuela donde sólo quieran que se sienten en un salón, donde van a ser acosados, donde los maestros no los conocen por nombre”. 

Dice ella que tanto la Excel como ASPIRA les dicen que no se preocupen: “Queremos que consigan su diploma, y después queremos que sepan lo que van a hacer. ¿Qué plan tienes? ¿Cuáles son tus metas?”

La asistencia diaria de los 110 estudiantes es de un 88%, dijo ella. Ella proyecta que 70 de los 78 seniors se graduarán en junio.

Muchos programas

Lebrón puede citar una larga lista de programas dirigidos a la ausencia crónica y a la prevención del abandono escolar.

Para darles atención adicional, los estudiantes de 9no grado toman todas sus clases en un solo piso, lo cual también minimiza la interacción con los estudiantes de grados mayores que a veces pueden ser intimidantes. 

El desempeño académico y de conducta de cada estudiante es revisado una vez a la semana por equipos de maestros (que incluyen a los de la Success y la Excel), y cada uno recibe una clasificación de “positivo”, “neutral” o “preocupante”.  Las clasificaciones se publican junto con los nombres para ser vistas por todos. Las intervenciones incluyen comunicarse con uno de los padres o encargado. 

Hay bailes, días de vestimenta informal, y otras actividades cuyo propósito es fomentar el buen comportamiento. Hay clubs desde oratoria hasta pesca. Los estudiantes del cuadro de honor reciben reconocimientos y pizza. Un grupo de prevención de ausencias crónicas con base religiosa atrae a ministros y trabajadores sociales; también hay oportunidades de práctica y mentoría. El programa Cradle to Grave, que incluye visitas a una cárcel y una morgue, busca crear conciencia en los jóvenes más obstinados. 

Lebrón fue sumamente directo con los estudiantes que estaban recibiendo pizza como recompensa por mejorar la asistencia. 

“Si van a marcar una diferencia en el mundo y en sus vidas, necesitan estar aquí”, les dijo. “En este edificio hay un montón de gente para ayudarlos. Para eso estamos aquí”.

About the Author

Connie Langland es redactora independiente sobre asuntos de educación.

Traducción por Mildred S. Martínez.

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